The Clause in English: In Honour of Rodney Huddleston
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Introduction Peter Collins and David Lee. Curriculum Vitae of Rodney Desmond Huddleston.
Huddleston, Rodney D(esmond) 1937-
The semantics of English quantifiers Keith Allan. Language, linear precedence and parentheticals Noel Burton-Roberts. The English modifier well Ray Cattell. The deictic-presentation construction in English Peter Collins. Relative clauses: Structure and typology on the periphery of standard English Bernard Comrie. Post nominal modifiers in the English noun phrase Peter H. Sentences, clauses, statements and propositions John Lyons.
Some interactions between tense and negation in English James D. The English accusative-and-infinitive construction: A categorial analysis John Payne. On the boundaries of syntax: Non-syntagmatic relations Peter G. Library Journal, September 1, , Manya S.
Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 24, Retrieved September 24, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Huddleston, Rodney D esmond Updated About encyclopedia. The typical pre-Head Modifier is an adjective or adjective phrase: a good book , a very serious matter. But those are not the only possibilities.
The clause in English : in honour of Rodney Huddleston
In particular, nouns can also function as Modifier to a Head noun: a school play , the unemployment situation , etc. Post-Head Modifiers are typically preposition phrases and subordinate clauses that occur more freely than Complements in that they do not have to be licensed by the Head noun: a man of honour , the house opposite the post office , the play that she wrote , the guy who spoke first.
It is also possible to have Modifiers that precede the Determiner: all the books , both these plays , too small a car for our needs. Instead of the latter we need an adjective, an absolute success.
Although most nouns have an inflectional contrast between singular and plural, there are a good few that do not - that have only singular or only plural forms:. Note that the last three items in [i] end in s but are nevertheless singular, as evident, for example, from the agreement in This news is good.
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Conversely, the last two items in [ii] don't end in s , but are nevertheless plural: cf. These cattle are in good health. Related to the distinction between nouns with variable number and nouns with fixed number is that between count and non-count nouns. Count nouns can take cardinal numerals one , two , three , etc. However, most nouns can occur with either a count or a non-count interpretation :.
He pulled out a white hair. He has white hair. Have another cake. Have some more cake. Can I borrow your football. Let's play football. The interpretations in [a] allow for a contrast between one and more than one cf. When we speak of count and non-count nouns, therefore, we are referring to nouns as used with a count and non-count interpretation.
Thus hair is a count noun in [ia], a non-count noun in [ib], and so on. We noted in Section5. There are, however, certain semantically-motivated types of departure from this pattern, as illustrated in :. There are three main subclasses of noun: common noun , proper noun and pronoun. Common noun is the default subclass and needs no further comment here. They characteristically function as Head of noun phrases serving as proper names , names individually assigned to particular people, places, festivals, days of the week, and so on.
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Note, however, that they also occur, derivatively, in other kinds of noun phrase: That's not the Smith I was referring to , Let's listen to some Beethoven. Conversely, not all proper names contain proper nouns: cf.
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Central Avenue , New Year's Day , and so on. There are several subtypes of pronoun, including:. We will comment here on only the first of these categories. Personal pronouns are those where we find contrasts of person. I and we are first person, used to refer to the speaker or a group containing the speaker.
The Clause in English: In honour of Rodney Huddleston | Edited by Peter Collins and David Lee
You is second person, used to refer to the addressee or a group containing one or more addressees. The others are third person: this doesn't encode reference to speaker or addressee and therefore usually refers to entities other than the speaker or addressee. But I can refer to myself or to you in the third person: The writer has noticed The personal pronouns have five inflectional forms:. I did it. It was I who did it. It bit me. It was me who did it. My son is here. I saw your car. Mine was broken.
That's mine. I hurt myself. We talk to ourselves. Nominatives occur mostly as Head of a Subject noun phrase. Dependent genitives occur when there is a following Head in the noun phrase, independent ones when there isn't. Reflexives usually relate back to the Subject noun phrase, as in the above examples. Most adjectives can be either attributive or predicative :.
These look new. I found it excellent. They seem lonely. Attributive adjectives are pre-head Modifiers in noun phrase structure; predicative adjectives are Predicative Complements in clause structure see Section5. There are, however, some adjectives that are restricted to one or other of these functions:. She's asleep. He looks content. It's liable to flood. The most central adjectives are gradable : they denote properties that can apply in varying degrees.
As such, they can be modified by adverbs of degree and under conditions relating to length and form be inflected for comparative e.
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Gradable adjectives that don't inflect mark comparative and superlative degree by means of the adverbs more and most respectively: more intelligent , most intelligent. There are also a good number of adjectives that denote non-scalar properties and hence are non-gradable : alphabetical order , the chief difficulty , the federal government , her right eye , third place. Some adjectives, moreover, can be used in two different senses, one gradable, the other non-gradable and usually the more basic.
In The door is open , for example, open is non-gradable, but in You should be more open with us it is gradable. Adjective phrases consist of an adjective as Head, alone or accompanied by one or more Dependents, which may be Complements or Modifiers:.
The Complements are preposition phrases or subordinate clauses; in the former case the adjective selects a particular preposition to head the Complement: fond takes of , keen takes on , and so on.