Food Process Engineering Operations

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The authors found that the mean residence time of the retention reactor was close to the hydraulic residence time, and no major defects in the flow could be considered.

Food Engineering and Bioprocess Technology

However, the RTDs of the MT system have yet to be characterized, which is necessary to finally compare all of the results obtained. Micro process engineering as a tool of process synthesis and intensification is a useful approach to adjusting a process to the reaction rather than adapting different phenomena to the process. Limiting steps in the heat transfer performance can be avoided through extreme surface-area-to-volume ratios, which enables ultra-short thermal treatment of foods within the millisecond range.

Innovative pasteurization and sterilization with higher temperatures, but holding times within the millisecond range allow the preservation of liquid foods with higher qualities because several unwanted reactions with different temperature—time characteristics can be avoided.


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However, the benefits of a high surface-area-to-volume ratio have certain drawbacks, particularly fouling, clogging, and potential temperature gradients that need to be assessed on a case by case basis and accordingly optimized. Further applications include a more effective upscaling of the thermal processes from the lab to the pilot and industrial scales. It was demonstrated that batch and continuous lab-scale studies of thermal inactivation kinetics can be sufficiently upscaled. Continuous lab-scale studies can significantly improve this procedure by using a greater sample volume than the batch, process conditions more comparable to the pilot and industrial scales, and equipment with easier handling than pilot-scale equipment owing to the respective volume needs.

Micro process engineering applications in thermal food treatment can be relevant in future research and industrial operations. Scaling of micro structured devices is possible through the use of numbering-up approaches; however, reduced investment costs and a hygienic design must be assured. The author gratefully acknowledges Dr.

Erika S. Georget; Dr. Frank Herbstritt; Dr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Nutr v. Front Nutr.

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Published online Apr 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Specialty section: This article was submitted to Nutrition and Food Science Technology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition. Received Jan 17; Accepted Mar The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Micro process engineering as a process synthesis and intensification tool enables an ultra-short thermal treatment of foods within milliseconds ms using very high surface-area-to-volume ratios.

Keywords: micro process engineering, thermal processing, food processing, preservation, thermal inactivation, rapid heating, thermal pasteurization, thermal sterilization. Introduction Micro process engineering as tool of process intensification is an emerging and growing field in the chemical engineering domain 1 — 3 ; however, knowledge transfer and applications into food engineering have been limited thus far.

Micro Process Engineering for Thermal Food Treatment Thermal Processing in Micro Structured Devices Micro process engineering operates at extreme surface-area-to-volume ratios, and owing to the respective laminar flow conditions in micro structured heat exchangers 6 , 11 , the main relevant mechanism of a heat transfer is thermal conduction 8. Thermal Degradation of Bacteria and Food Compounds Thermal degradation during food processing is typically quantified based on a decadic logarithm of the concentration changes under isothermal conditions, as indicated in Eq.

New Temperature—Time Conditions Beyond Conventional Thermal Process Windows The thermal processing of food includes a broad spectrum of operations, mainly grouped as processes focused on the heat or mass transfer. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Scale-Up of Thermal Inactivation Processes The scalability of food research results and process development is a significant challenge for implementation initiatives.

Figure 2. Conclusion Micro process engineering as a tool of process synthesis and intensification is a useful approach to adjusting a process to the reaction rather than adapting different phenomena to the process. Acknowledgments The author gratefully acknowledges Dr. Footnotes Funding. References 1. Implementation of microreaction technology in process engineering. In: Ehrfeld W, editor.

Volume I-III. KGaA; Kockmann N. Process intensification: transforming chemical engineering. Chem Eng Prog 96 2 — Westerberg AW. A retrospective on design and process synthesis.

Roasting and Toasting Operations in Food: Process Engineering and Applications

Comput Chem Eng 28 4 — Emig G, Klemm E. Technische Chemie. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; Kiwi-Minsker L, Renken A. Microstructured reactors for catalytic reactions. Catal Today 1—2 :2— Freund H, Sundmacher K. Process intensification, 3. Process unit level. In: Elvers B, editor. Food Engineering at multiple scales: case studies, challenges and the future—a European Perspective.

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Muenchen, Germany: Verlag A. Kessler; Arrhenius SA. Z Phys Chem 4 — The heat resistance of the spores of B.

J Infect Dis 31 — Aiba S, Toda K. Some analysis of thermal inactivation of bacterial-spore clump. J Ferm Tec 44 —4. Heinz V, Knorr D. High pressure inactivation kinetics of Bacillus subtilis cells by a three-state-model considering distribution resistance mechanisms. Food Biotechnol 10 2 — Impact of agglomeration on the quantitative assessment of Bacillus stearothermophilus heat inactivation.

J Food Eng 81 2 —7. Impact of dissociation equilibrium shift on bacterial spore inactivation by heat and pressure. Food Control 19 12 — Peleg M, Cole MB. Reinterpretation of microbial survival curves. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 38 5 — Mathys A.

Dr. Tan Thuan Chew

Ultra high temperature, ultra short time surface pasteurization of meat. J Food Sci 61 6 —8. Extreme high-temperature treatment of milk with respect to plasmin inactivation.


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Int Dairy J 18 5 —8. Inactivation of bacterial spores subjected to sub-second thermal stress. Chem Eng J — Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.

Postharvest Technology and Food Process Engineering

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